The in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established method of assisted reproduction created to increase the probability of a pregnancy in couples facing infertility problems.
Since its beginnings in 1979 the in vitro fertilization has helped millions of couples to achieve pregnancy.
The purpose of in vitro fertilization consists in the fertilization of the ova by the sperm outside the woman’s body, when they are unable to make the fertilization in its natural place, the fallopian tube. When the fertilization is done, the embryos are transferred to the uterus.
The In Vitro Fertilization is a relatively complex process due of all the steps required to achieve it. The in vitro fertilization cycle requires clinical monitoring of the patient, as well as precise laboratory studies.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is recommended especially in cases of partial or total occlusion, or the absence of the tubes. In case of infertility, for unknown reasons, or bad quality of the sperm, where IVF has applied successfully. IVF has a great diagnostic value in the treatment of infertility. If the mature ova become fertilized, although pregnancy is not achieved, the future treatments make sense. If instead, the fertilization of the mature ova does not happen, the only treatment left , in most cases is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
In most cases, the IVF treatment requires hormonal stimulation, starting from day 1 to 3 of the cycle.
The success of the IVF depends on many factors: it has to do with the quality of the sperm, the amount of mature ova, the amount of transferred embryos and the process of implantation of the embryo in the internal layer of the matrix (the endometrium). The bad sperm quality, usually low sperm motility or small amounts of spermatozoa, avoids in many cases a successful fertilization. The fertilization in normal cases does not exceed 30% (if the sperm is in normal parameters, the fertilization reaches a 80%)
Sometimes, women with severe hormonal disorders, develop only immature ova. These immature eggs or postmature does not have the same ability to fertilize. In these cases, the moment of union of the sperm and the ova is extremely important. Sometimes the upheavals in the maturation of the ova is managed through a protocol adapted in a next cycle of treatment. The implantation of the embryos in the internal layer of the matrix (the endometrium) is supported with hormones that optimize the process.
A great part of these embryos is lost because of poor conditions during the process of implantation in the endometrium. Another part of the embryos stops developing because there is probably a genetic damage. In these cases, the lack of a pregnancy is a mechanism of protection of the nature to prevent a malformation.